Monday, January 20, 2020
I believe that George Orwell used direct characterization to introduce his characters. For example when he introduced Old Major he said, Ã¢â¬Å"he was twelve years old and had lately grown rather stout, but he was still a majestic looking pig, with a wise and benevolent appearance in spite of the fact that his tushes had never been cutÃ¢â¬ . Another example is when he introduced Snowball and Napoleon, there he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Pre-eminent among the pigs were two young boats named Snowball and Na0oleaon, whom My. Jones was breeding up for sale. Napoleon was a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way. Snowball was a more vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker speech and more attentive, but was not considered to have the depth of character.Ã¢â¬ George Orwell also described them with their appearance before we actually saw them. We also learned somewhat about the characters by the speec hes that they give; Old Major could be seen as the leader of the animals because everyone looked up to, in my thoughts he talked with power. In the book I feel that Snowball is the protagonist and Napoleon is the antagonist. Snowball was the likeable person among the animals also very admirable. The other animals looked up to him and not only because he was the leader. He put effort into the ideas that he and all the other animals came up with. He also worked with the animals and did not slack off because he was the leader. Napoleon on the other hand took advantage of his rank. He did not work with the other animals and broke all the rules. When this happened he made an excuse or changed the rule. For example the original commandment stated that Ã¢â¬Å"No animal shall drink alcoholÃ¢â¬ , but after getting drunk the rule mysteriously changed to Ã¢â¬Å"No animal shall drink alcohol in excess.Ã¢â¬ This and a few other rules that were changed are a few examples. The major commandment that he broke though was Ã¢â¬Å"No animal shall kill any other animalÃ¢â¬ , but when he instructed his nine bodyguards to kill some geese , the rule mysteriously changed. The new rule stated that Ã¢â¬Å"NO animal shall kill any other animal without cause.Ã¢â¬ At this point it shows that he really is an antagonist. I also feel that the humans were also antagonists, just of the fact how they treated the animals.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Research topic Increase In tourism In Samoa Introduction Samoa has become an increasingly popular tourist destination in the Pacific Islands due to its natural beauty. Positively, the tourism industry has been beneficial for Samoa economically but it also has its disadvantages which affects the environment and our culture. This research will aim to identify and describe three impacts as a result of the Increase in tourism In Samoa. It will further discuss the measures that have been taken to address these Issues as well as the consequences. The Information collected for this research will be used as supporting references to my answers which were composed from an interview with the management of Le Lagoto Resort, a report from the Central Bank of Samoa and the use of internet sources relevant to this research. Impact of the increase in tourism to the environment Samoa is well known as a tourist destination for its natural and undisrupted environment which attracts people overseas resulting in an increase of tourist arrivals. The promotion of our country is advantageous but at the same time it has negatively Impacted our environment through air and sea pollution. For example, a tourist to travel to Samoa requires travelling on an airplane and travel to Savaii earns transportation by boat. Due to transportation needs to get to a destination these transportation methods are required. Therefore, the more flights travelling to Samoa will mean air pollution which contributes negatively to global warming. On the other hand, the ferry that travels between Savaii and Upolu Island operating six times a day contributes to sea pollution which affects our marine life which most locals depend on for food and as a source of income. Furthermore, car rental companies holiday. This increase in vehicle use also contributes to air pollution but also results n damaging our road infrastructure. An increase in tourism results in a high demand for resorts to build more rooms to accommodate guests. Locally owned beach falls are built using local timber from our natural resources or cutting down trees which in effect diminish bird and wild life creatures such as bats. Moreover, cutting down these trees for infrastructural use also results in soil erosion which removes minerals in the soil required for vegetation growth. Impact of the increase in tourism to our social & cultural values Tourist arrivals to Samoa consists different people travelling from overseas such as New Zealand and Australia, Just to name a few. These people have their own culture, values and a different way of life compared to our Samoan culture in which the Ã¢â¬Å"infusion of tourist and locals can disrupt local traditions and culturesÃ¢â¬ 2. For instance, the Siva Samoa or traditional dance has for some time now been incorporated together with other actions influenced by famous international moves that we see on the television. Also, we lose some of our cultural values when associated with Ã¢â¬Å"plaguesÃ¢â¬ or Europeans as we get caught up or interested in their culture especially the influence in clothing is very obvious. On the other hand, social relationships are formed between locals and tourists when they interact. However, in extreme cases where sexual interaction occurs between a tourist and a local, it may lead to diseases such as HIV Aids which is very common nowadays. Furthermore, tourists travelling individually may encourage local women into prostitution by offering them money for sexual favors which is demeaning and unacceptable in the Samoan community. Impact of the increase in tourism to SamoaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy Tourism has become one of SamoaÃ¢â¬â¢s main revenue earners with still 95% of our tourist industry locally owned. Samoa saw an increase in tourism earnings for the month of March according to the latest Tourism and Remittances Report from the Central Bank of Samoa which shows that tourist arrivals were Just over 9,000, a 25 percent increase from the previous month. 3 The higher arrivals in the month under review reflected increases in all the main source markets, particularly, Australia and New Zealand, though there was a drop in travelers from the United States. It was also noted that Ã¢â¬ËSamoa hosted several regional conferences and workshops during March and total tourism revenues rose 22 percent to 23. million tala; 7 percent higher than the same time last yearÃ¢â¬â¢. 4 Ã¢â¬Å"Increase in tourism helps create employment for a large number of unqualified workers from the traditional sectors in the developing countriesÃ¢â¬ 5 such as Samoa. This statement is a fact as according to the interview I conducted with Gabriella of Le lagoto Resort. During their busy season they hire more employ ees which are mainly from the neighboring villages of and with the majority having low level of qualifications and minimum skills in the industry which leads to customer dissatisfaction and complaints. This result in touristÃ¢â¬â¢s not returning back to Samoa which reduces the number of tourist arrivals. However, having employment offered to the local community has contributed in them earning an income to support their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ livelihoods. Secondly, it has also generated income for the people managing tourist attraction sights which are locally owned. For example, the Swimming with the turtleÃ¢â¬â¢s attraction is owned and those who want to swim and see the turtles. Moreover, due to the increase in tourists there is also an increase in demand from resorts for supplies of local vegetables and rusts to meet their guestÃ¢â¬â¢s dinning needs. According to the interview, it was stated that Le purchases their produce mainly from the villagers with plantations instead of buying supplies from the main island to provide an income, as most locals are not employed due to the lack of business and industrial Jobs within the area. MEASUREMENTS In regards to maintaining a clean environment in Samoa, the Samoa Tourism Authority has implemented the Samoa Beautification scheme. This measurement is aimed at improving the cleanliness of Samoa and its environment which is an attraction to people from overseas. Generally, the Samoa Tourism Authority awards the villages with the most outstanding cleanliness which is an incentive for the village community. In addition, other policies have been taken to address other environmental issues, such as the village communities marking or preserving certain areas for marine conversation which is seen along villages along the coast of Savaii. Moreover, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment has also restricted certain forest areas for cutting down trees in order to maintain habitats for species. Other measures include restrictions by village communities such as preventing rubbish rom being dumped in our oceans and burning rubbish in open areas which causes pollutions. Furthermore, the Samoa Tourism Authority has helped in addressing training requirements for the tourism industry sector in order to improve skills and knowledge in the hospitality trade. For example, APTC has offered assistance to most industry employees for customer service, and chef trainings. Other trainings include bringing in specialists in the tourism industry from overseas to provide further knowledge on how to maintain the standard of tourism in Samoa. These trainings and conferences have made it possible for locals to obtain further knowledge and specific skills that benefit the tourism industry of Samoa. Moreover, our culture and people also promotes Samoa, it is obvious that our cultural heritage is preserved through different ways. For example, our Siva Samoa or Samoan cultural performances are show cased by resorts and hotels during their flavor nights. In addition, activities such as showing tourists how to husk a coconut, how to make a usu, how to weave mats promotes the Samoan way of life. In my opinion concerning the environment, I think that planning is necessary to address environmental issues as this will help preserve our natural resources. For erosion and depletion of our wild life creatures can be addressed through enforcing laws by mates or high chiefs in the village. Air and sea pollution can also be reduced if tourist arrivals decrease as this means less flights operating. In relation to social and cultural issues affected by the increase of tourism, some measures should be undertaken to prevent tourists from performing unacceptable acts or behavior while in Samoa. For example, if we look at countries in Asia, tourists are the main customers for prostitution centers; although it is legal in these countries it still does not portray a good image of this country. However, these types of acts will certainly not be accepted in Samoa, a country with strong values and good morals in which we hope to maintain in the future. In regards to employees with low qualifications and no skills in the industry, Gabriella stated that they address this issue through on the Job training by our assistant manager. Another method used to address this problem has been implemented by the Samoa Tourism Authority through their industry training delivered in the workplace programs. This includes the Signature Cocktail and Bartender Competition to be held during Teuila Festival which will help improve bartenders services for hose employed at resorts and hotels.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Is it possible for a community to entrust artists with the responsibility of redeveloping a neighborhood? After all, doubts are understandable; artists are better at being artists and developers are best at being developers. As a matter of fact, does an artist/real estate developer even exist? Just the mere thought seems impractical. Although this may be true in most cities, Memphis, Tennessee is currently in the middle of a Renaissance, and artists are leading the way. The anchor of this Renaissance is the revitalization of The Sears Concourse building. The Art Deco 1.5 million square foot structure built in 1927 was once a source of pride for the city, attracting 30,000 visitors at its grand opening to marvel at its decadence and eventually serving as a distribution hub for 50 years. Employing 1500 people and attracting thousands of visitors per day in the department store, it was an economic pillar of the Crosstown neighborhood. However, in 2010, the building standing empty for 22 years, became an eyesore that Crosstown co-founder Todd Richardson describes as Ã¢â¬Å" a beacon of hope that is now a disappointing reminder of unmet expectations for the cityÃ¢â¬ . The surrounding neighborhood would keep hoping sooner or later, someone would eventually solve the dilemma of what to do with so much space that had been empty for so long. Year after year, businesses boarded up, houses deteriorated and neighbors lost hope. No one knew what to do; that is to say, until an artist, art
Friday, December 27, 2019
As we advanced from the 20th century to the 21st century many of our ideas, outlooks, and information we knew about the world changed and progressed greatly. This is also true for how we as a civilization viewed management, progressed and continued to progress in bettering our management practices. This book analyzes old and new assumptions of management practices along with the reality that comes with the new strategies. The author also describes that as we go through these changes a leader that knows how to work with change is important to have to get passed the many information challenges. Drucker then describes that as the organizations change it is important that individuals within the organization also change to help reach maximumÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Since the discipline behind management is always changing so are the assumptions that come with it. Drucker First lists 7 old assumptions of management, which are: 1. Management Is Business Management 2. There is Ã¢â¬â or there must be- one right organization structure. 3. There is Ã¢â¬â or there must be- one right way to manage people. 4. Technologies, markets and end-users are given 5. ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s scope is legally defined. 6. Management is internally focused. 7. The economy as defined by national boundaries is the ecology of enterprise and management. Ducker goes on to explain that the first three assumptions are related to the discipline of management while the last 4 are related to the practice of management itself. He also points out that these assumptions might have been helpful back then but are actually hurting us now. They are now so far removed from actual reality that they are becoming obstacles to the Theory and even more serious obstacles to the Practice of Management. Indeed, reality is fast becoming the very opposite of what these assumptions claim it to be (Drucker). Drucker then goes on to explain his 8 new management assumptions related to the discipline of management, which are: 1. Management is not only for profit-making businesses. 2. There is not only one right organization. 3. There is not one right way to manage people. 4. Technologies and End-UsersShow MoreRelatedDeaf : Deaf And Deaf886 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat studies deaf individuals and their unique communities and culture and may include constructs from anthropology, linguistics, bilingual education, disability, audiology, etc. Within the context of Deaf Studies, deaf individuals are no longer defined solely by their lack of hearing, but by their cultural, linguistic, and sensorial ways of being in the world (Bauman Murray, 2010). That is why we hear people educated with Deaf Studies saying ASL kids to refer to deaf kids who use American SignRead MoreClassism in North America1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Classism in North America Ã Classism is a big dilemma in several parts of the world such as North America. The wordÃ ClassismÃ was derived fromÃ ClassÃ andÃ -ism; the wordÃ ClassÃ descended from a French word, Classe, and a Latin word Classis. The word was originally created by Servius Tullius in one of the six orders into which he used to divide the Roman people for the purpose of taxation. Those words together make the word Classism which means a biased or discriminatory attitude based on distinctionsRead MoreRevolutionary Movements Essay1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Revolutionary Movements With the 20th century, many new revolutionary movements have come into the focus of world politics. Of these, fascism is one of the most difficult to put into a proper context. 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By examining this rich history, we can see not only how dynamic and complex nursing science is, but alsoRead MoreINTRODUCTION Since the start of the industrial age, people have made revolutionary changes in1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbe a sustainable solution in the 21st century and to identify and describe the important and unique features of homes made out of earth. I. PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT BUILDING MATERIALS The main conventional building materials, which are concrete and steel, have some major problems. First of all, their price is not only high, but it is becoming higher and higher (see figure 1). Moreover, concrete is an unsustainable building material to build with in the 21st century, given the large amount of CO2 emissionsRead MoreIndustrialization During The Industrial Revolution1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the world in which we live Ã¢â¬â since the Industrial Revolution began in Britain (from 1760 until sometime between 1820 and 1840). The improvement of business acquisitions and evolution of trade were essential to the Industrial Revolution. Most of the British population lived in the countryside, in small villages, and interacted closely within their family unit and work. Industrialization, however, drastically altered the small family unit, when work was transitioned from hand production methodsRead MoreA Study of Charles Van Dorens A History of Knowledge733 Words Ã | Ã 3 Pagessome crops in order to live; also, clerics were happy with the crops given to the Church; consequently, there was little knowledge or need for money and earning just what a person needed was the acceptable way of life. In contrast, the new, 19th Century concept of economy involved the retail trade of everything, including human labor, and profiting by earning money was an important part of this new economic system. Based largely on the ideas of Adam Smith and his book, Wealth and nation, the idea
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Samantha Langert Professor Jereb English G110 18 September 2017 Prejudices in Cathedral Prejudice comes in all forms; whether it is due to someone s skin color, religion, or disability, fear of someone who is different than what you view as normal is apparent all around us. Miriam Webster defines Prejudice as Ã¢â¬Å"injury or damage resulting from some judgment or action of another in disregard to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s rightsÃ¢â¬ . Although most people tend to associate prejudice with racism, that is not always the case. In quite a few instances of everyday life, it is hate towards another person you consider to be inferior and not normal. Prejudice implies a closed point of view, one that is not open to differences and a prejudgment of a group of people youÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The NarratorÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts show us that he holds onto these prejudgements of blind people, believing they have both physical and mental incapabilities, and has not made a point to try and fix this perspective. The Narrator also feels he has an inherent superiority to Robert because of this , placing a self-centered twist onto everything. For all of the Narrators prejudice towards others, he is more than happy to not place any of his critical and judgemental focus on himself. It is shown in glimpses of the story how the Narrator dictates his world by only what he can actually see, placing a limitation on himself that Robert does not have. Ã¢â¬Å"It was beyond my understanding. Hearing this, I felt sorry for the blind man for a little bit. And then I found myself thinking what a pitiful life this woman must have ledÃ¢â¬ (139). The Narrator lacks what can be perceived as a sight into both his own, and others, emotions. It is further on that we come to realize how much the Narrator relies on his vision, thinking that RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Beulah, could have worn anything she wanted to, not because she felt like it, but because no one could appreciate how she beautiful or ugly she looks. Although the Narrator can obviously see, he does not realize the restrictions he placed upon himself and how those restrictions prevented him from wanting or doing anything greater with his ownShow MoreRelated Blind Faith in Raymond Carvers Cathedral Essay920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBlind Faith in Raymond Carvers Cathedral Ã Ã Ã In the story Cathedral by Raymond Carver, the main character, goes through a major personal transformation.Ã At the beginning of the story, his opinions of others are filled with stereotypes, discrimination and prejudice.Ã Through interaction with his wifes blind friend Robert, his attitude and outlook on life changes.Ã Although at first he seemed afraid to associate with a blind man, Roberts outgoing personality left him with virtually noRead MoreCathedral Critical Essay1250 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages02/01/2012 Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ Critical Essay It is human nature to shy away from social situations that make us uncomfortable. Also, as a people with great pride, we often find it difficult to admit when we have been iniquitous, or to allow ourselves to be open to humbling experiences. Sometimes though, it is not entirely due to intolerance that we allow ourselves to make ill-informed judgments. Raymond Carver was a writer with some insight concerning these very ideas. In his short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ CarverRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRaymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s characters were considered to be very much like him: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢on the edge: of poverty, alcoholic self-destruction, lonelinessÃ¢â¬ (Mays 32). His short story Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ is about a young couple, who have a visitor coming to stay with them. This visitor, Robert, is the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, and he is blind. The narrator, the husband, has never met someone who is blind, was bothered by that. To h im, being blind meant constantly needing help from others. His depiction of blindness was what he has seenRead MoreA Man Becoming Prejudice Against Blind People1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA man becoming prejudice against blind people. A man that has been closed off emotionally makes of a connection with a blind man, it is a breakthrough for him. It is an epiphany making a cathedral with the blind man is the moment when he learns how to trust another person.The Cathedral is a captivating story based on the lives of the narrator, his wife and a blind man. Raymond Carver is the author of this story, and he does an excellent job allowing the reader to delve into the lives of these charactersRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCharacter Analysis in Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ : The Narrator Literature has the potential to act as a mirror by presenting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lived experiences, expectations, and perceptions through characters. Such is what can be deciphered through the analysis of different characters in Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral.Ã¢â¬ This paper focuses on the narrator of the story portrayed by the author as blind, which is used metaphorically not to imply physical blindness, but the inability to have reasonedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Garden Of Death By Hugo Simberg1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn this essay the 1896 watercolour and gouache version of The Garden of Death by Hugo Simberg will be discussed and analysed from three methodological art history perspectives: Biographically-based art history, Erwin PanofskyÃ¢â¬â¢s 3-stage method of pre-iconographic, iconographic and iconology, and Reception theory. The limits of these art histories will each be demonstrated. To begin, a biographically-based art history on Hugo Gerhard Simberg, who was born in 1873 in the Finnish town of Hamina.Read MoreVowel and British Poetry Assignment784 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMEG-01: BRITISH POETRY ASSIGNMENT Max. Marks: 100 Programme: MC;G Assignment Code: MEGO 1 llMA120 10- 1 1 Dear Student. In a conventional class your teacher would have discussed your assignment with you, pointed out what made a good essay and what a bad one. We have done exactly the same thing in Unit 52 of the Thereafter decide upon a topic, i.e. a period or literary group in the history of British Poetry. You may, if you wish, select a topic from the list given in 52.2.1 (p.70). AlternativelyRead MoreEssay on Voltaire and the Beginning of the Enlightment1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages the Englightment, a time where he would continuously mock the idea of religion and reinforce the idea of human liberty and opinion fearlessly through his many plays, literature, and essays. Furthermore, Voltaire remained in England for three years while publishing an English version of the La Henriade, an essay concerning the defense of religious toleration.3 After finishing the publication, he dedicated it to the Queen. Eventually Voltaire was granted permission to return to France and cheerfullyRead MoreMinimalism by Raymond Carver Essay3013 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesget a point across. This method leads to a creative piece of literature with strategically placed vocabulary to stimulate hidden meaning and different forms of communication throughout the plots as shown in Ã¢â¬Å"The BathÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"A Small, Good ThingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ . CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s use of minimalism was an intelligent way to allow readers to make their own personal connections and analogies of hidden messages throughout his stories. Minimalistic writing is when less means more. Many Critics refer to Raymond CarverRead MoreUsing Satire in A Modest ProposalÃ¢â¬ by Jonathan Swift760 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Modest ProposalÃ¢â¬ by Jonathan Swift, is an essay that uses satire. Merriam-Webster defines satire as: a way of using humor to show that someone or something is foolish, weak, bad, etc.: humor that shows the weaknesses or bad qualities of a person, government, society, etc. Ã¢â¬Å"Satire may make the reader laugh at, or feel disgust for, the person or thing satirized. Impishly or sardonically, it criticizes someone or something, using wit and clever wordingÃ¢â¬âand sometimes makes outrageous assertions or
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: What, if anything, do the current conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, and among the Shi'a and Sunnis in Iraq and Syria, say about the utility of Huntington's thesis about the clash of civilizations? Answer: At the end of the cold war, the expertise of international relations and the political scientists were discovering the predictable and probable situations after this devastating revolution. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine took place due to some important reasons. The conflict arose when the presidents of Ukraine refuse to make an economic deal with Russia regarding the agreement in association. After a few days, that particular individual agreed to accept another economic deal with Russia. This was one of the effective reasons to for the conflict of Russia and Ukraine. On the other hand, Russia chose Ukraine for making their economic deal because Ukraine is possessed with the products of high quality along with its low prices. As a result, Russia would be benefited to make a free agreement with Ukraine. The primary reason between the conflict of Shias and Sunnis was differentiation of their values, beliefs and ethics. As per the Muslim theology, God renders the blessing through the prophets who plays the role of messengers . Shias do not prefer to believe on messengers as they believe to reach the god directly. As per their point of view, human being does not need to go through the prophet in order to receive the blessings of god. The beliefs and values of Sunnis were just the opposite. That was the root of arising conflict between Shias and Sunnis. This has become the ancient religious divide made a conflict regarding transforming a map for the people of Middle East. The current scenario has been changed right now. At present, more than ten thousands militants have been spread throughout Iraq and Syria. It was the amalgamation both Shias and Sunnis. The primary concern of many expertises was reducing the violence between them. Still, it is a matter of argument whether the religious conflict between this Shia and Sunnis would be reduced or it would go to the ultimate violence that would become a severe threat for leading a life successfully or for maintaining peace in the international field. In this situation, the well-known political scientist Samuel Huntington described the future aspect of the international system and policies. Samuel believed the fact that one particular region is possessed with various cultural divisions such as Western, Islamic and Hindu and so many. Each and every cultured is attached with their own perception and values. As per his point of view, Islamic civilization had been raised as one of the major troubles. The inhabitants of Arab do not intend to share their values and perception with the Western countries. As a result, a major communication gap has occurred in between them. The nature of the conflict: The post situation of the cold war, the political scenario was it was entering to the new age of revolution. The nation states were getting back their rivalries, that was maintained traditionally and the aspect of tribalism and globalism was supplying the strength to the decline of the nation. As these aspects were the matter of main concern of the era, they missed the central aspect of the globally inspired politics. The aspect of civilization after the cold war: The migration to the Western Europe was incredibly increased by the growth of population in the Arabian countries. The aspect of racism was broadly open that time. The clash of civilization was indicated by the differences between the Islam and the west culture. The conflict was increasing on the area of northern border in Islam, which involves the Orthodox and Muslim people, which expressed as the violence between the Serb and Albanian, and the relationship was also getting destroyed between the Bulgarian and the minorities of the Turkish. Conclusion: It was not that much surprising, as people were so much excited for the after effects of the cold war, the thesis of Huntington was a little bit controversial. The facts of civilization was globally criticized by the critics, as it consists of the unclear definition of the concept of civilization, as the western civilization is mainly consists of the western and modern, i.e. non-western civilization. Reference: Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations?Foreign Affairs72.3:22-49. (1993) Kenny, Charles. The Convergence of Civilizations.Foreign Policy(2013) Ayoob, Mohammed. 2012. Was Huntington Right? Revisiting the Clash of Civilizations.Insight Turkey14.4: 1- 11. (2012.)
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
learning and motivation Essay Introduction: In order to study how people learn a new set of behaviors, we are going to apply three learning theories which learned though this course: classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social cognitive theory . ln this paper, only one example would be applied by the theories. The chosen example is a commercial of LNYX body wash which will be further described in the next paragraph. First, we will briefly describe the cases. Then, the application of the theory will be presented part by part from classical conditioning, operant conditioning to social cognitive theory . n each art, we will briefly introduce the major concept of the theories used , followed by the studies on the effectiveness of the commercial. Commercial Content: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=YuvIsaOYr18 The following is the description of the commercial content. The commercial showed that there are two men who were using two different kinds of body wash product. They went clubbing together after us ing the two different body wash products. The man who used LYNX body wash is charm and handsome so that he got many attractions from girls but another man who used other brand of body wash did not. Classical Conditioning: According to the learning behaviorism approaches, there are two forms of associative learning: Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. I would briefly introduce what is classical conditioning and apply classical conditioning in the chosen advertisement. Last but not least, it will be an analysis on the effectiveness of this advertisement with certain related concepts. Classical conditioning is learning through association/ pairing This is a basic form of learning in which one stimulus predicts the occurrence of another. It also involves making a new connection, or association, between events in the environment. Referring to the commercial showed, before conditioning, charming and handsome man was the unconditioned stimulus and naturally elicits to the reflex of the unconditioned response which was got attraction from girls. During conditioning, there was the pairing up between an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Refer to the commercial, charming and handsome man was the unconditioned stimulus and the LYNX body wash was the neutral stimulus which has no intrinsic meaning to the organism before conditioning. After conditioning, man would get attraction form girls after using the LYNX body wash product. We will write a custom essay sample on learning and motivation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on learning and motivation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on learning and motivation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer So LYNX body wash become conditioned stimulus and elicit girls attraction which is the conditioned For the commercials effectiveness, it depends on peoples cognition of this commercial. According to the related concept of classical conditioning, stimulus generalization is automatic extension of conditioned responding to similar stimuli. Thus, One who are confused about LYNX body wash with other similar product cannot identify the difference and response in the same way with the similar products. That is, they believed that using other brands body wash can also get attraction form girls. Then, the commercials effectiveness would be diminished. Under another situation, stimulus discrimination, the organism does not respond the same way to two similar stimuli as it has learned to distinguish between them. One can distinguish between products of different brands and distinguish that only the use of LYNX can attract girls. So, the effectiveness of the commercial increase as people are willing to buy LYNX body wash in order to get attraction from girls . Therefore, the commercial effectiveness depends on peoples cognition on this advertisement. Operant Conditioning: According to operant conditioning, learning in which the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences. (Skinner, 1983)Following the law of effect, if the consequence is positive, or satisfying to the organism, in future with the same stimulus presented again, the same response will be more likely to occur, vice versa. Thus, Skinner said that we learn an association between a response to a stimulus and its consequences with the experiment he did. In this commercial, the stimulus is the use of LYNX body wash; the consequence is become attractive among girls. As we ll know, the consequences attractive here, is positive and pleasant, so people will be more likely to use LYNX body wash. The video shows both types of consequences: reinforcement and punishment. In the video, the man who use LYNX body wash and go clubbing becomes more charming and attracts girls attentions. Being charm is a positive reinforcement. Since Behavior is followed by the delivery of an appetitive stimulus, and it is Increases the probability of that behavior (Skinner, 1969), the delivery of attractiveness after using LYNX body wash reinforces him to increase the behavior of using LYNX body wash. Another man in the commercial, who wears in pink, is using other common brands body wash and going clubbing, he becomes feminine and unwelcome among girls. Removal of attractiveness is the negative punishment since behavior is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus, and it is decreasing the probability of that behavior (Skinner, 1969). Therefore, people will not choose to use other brands body wash so as to avoid the unwelcome consequence of removing attractiveness. In order to have an in-depth study on the effectiveness of the commercial based one perant conditioning, we will examine the fulfillment of some important conditions immediately and reinforcer must follow the response. In the commercial popularity among girls (reinforcer) Just followed the response of using LYNX body wash immediately. That means Reinforcers that precede a response rarely have an effect on the response. Moreover, there is no delay in the presentation of popularity among girls after the men using LYNX body wash which preserve the effectiveness of commercial. If the presentation of popularity among girls delayed, the commercial would become less effective as the reinforcers presentation is elayed and the noticed consequence become less rewarding. Last but not least, there are two men using in different brand of body wash but the popularity among girls was only presented when the desired response (use LYNX body wash) occurred. This fulfills the reinforcement contingency which stated that the reinforcer should be presented only when the desired response has occurred. Since there is a strong fulfillment of those conditions for operant conditioning, the commercial is regarded as effective. Social Cognitive Theory: The social cognitive theory force on what and how people learn from one another. There is a reciprocal causation in social cognitive theory stated that the interaction of three variables: environment, person and behavior, affect each other. In order to have a clearer insight on how social cognitive theory is applied in this commercial, we initiate our application from the first step, that is, processes in observation learning. The processes of observation learning included Attention to appropriate models, Retention, Motor Reproduction and Motivation. That means the learner have to pay attention to character in the commercial and remember what the character did. Next, he has to practice Models behavior by using LYNX body wash. If he believe that he will be charming after using LYNX body wash, he will be motivate to keep imitating the Models behavior. Observational learning occurs when an organisms responses are influenced by the observation of a models behavior. Unlike other learning theories, observational learning can be vicarious. In another words, organism simply observes another perform a behavior, notes the consequences, and modifies its own behavior in a future, similar situation. In such, learner observes that the models behavior of using LYNX body wash so as the vicarious reinforcement the model received in the commercial. The learner would then be reinforced by the vicarious reinforcement of Charming and handsome, he would be more likely to imitate the models behavior for the sake of obtaining the same kind of reinforcement in the future. That means, he is going to use LYNX body wash so as to become charming, handsome and attractive to girls. oth self-efficacy and expectancies would affect ones likelihood in imitating the behavior. When one believes they are capable of executing the behaviors successfully, he is with high self-efficacy. Thus, one who got high self-efficacy think that it is easy to get and use LYNX body wash after watching such modeling. He is more likely to imitate the model and using t he product mentioned in the commercial. Expectancies, is about the consequences of a behavior are what render the behavior more or less likely to occur. When one expect to receive a favorable consequence of being Charm and handsome after using LYNX, he is more likely to do so. In order to study whether the commercial is effective, we examine the fulfillment of characteristics of effective models. We found that the model is competent because earners are capable in getting get LYNX body wash. The model behaves in stereotypical gender-appropriate ways as boys generally want to be attractive among girls. to our belief, the commercial will be more effective to boys who seeking for lovers because the models behavior is relevant to the observers situation. as the commercial fulfill such characteristics of effective models, it is an effective commercial form the analysis of social cognitive theory. Conclusion: In conclusion, we had applied all three theories namely classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social cognitive theory in one commercial. We found that the learning effectiveness of the case would depend on different conditions. For instance, in classical conditioning, people would have confusion with different body wash brand thus decrease the effectiveness of the commercial when there is a stimulus generalization; however, commercial would become more effective when there is stimulus discrimination because people could distinguish between different brands which urging them in purchase LYNX body wash. In addition, we can look into some particular conditions and characteristics to scrutinize the effectiveness of the commercial. For operant conditioning, we have examine on some important conditions for operant conditioning like the reinforcement contingency, reinforce must follow the response and immediacy. For social cognitive theory, we have study in some of the Characteristics of effective models: Such as competency, stereotypical gender-appropriate ways and whether the models behavior is relevant to the observers situation. We also noticed that one with high self-efficacy and expectation towards the behavior would also increase the effectiveness of the commercial. Based on the fulfillment of those particular onditions and characteristics of operant conditioning and social cognitive theory respectively, we reckon that the commercial is still regarded as the effective one. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: B. F. Skinner Foundation. Skinner, B. F. (1969) Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis TV Commercial from YouTube: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=YuvIsaOYr18 Bibliography Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis Skinner, B. F. (1950) Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57(4), 193-216.